Tweens, Cyberbullying, and Moral Reasoning

Link

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/S2050-206020140000008016

Abstract

Purpose

To inform policy, curricula, and future research on cyberbullying through an exploration of the moral reasoning of digitally active 10–14-year olds (tweens) when witnesses to digital abuse.

Methodology/approach

Conducted interviews with 41 tweens, asking participants to react as witnesses to two hypothetical scenarios of digital abuse. Through thematic analysis of the interviews, I developed and applied a new typology for classifying “upstanders” and “bystanders” to cyberbullying.

Findings

Identified three types of upstander and five types of bystander, along with five thinking processes that led participants to react in those different ways. Upstanders were more likely than bystanders to think through a scenario using high-order moral reasoning processes like disinterested perspective-taking. Moral reasoning, emotions, and contextual factors, as well as participant gender and home school district, all appeared to play a role in determining how participants responded to cyberbullying scenarios.

Research limitations/implications

Hypothetical scenarios posed in interviews cannot substitute for case studies of real events, but this qualitative analysis has produced a framework for classifying upstanding and bystanding behavior that can inform future studies and approaches to digital ethics education.

Originality

This study contributes to the literature on cyberbullying and moral reasoning through in-depth interviews with tweens that record the complexity and context-dependency of thinking processes like perspective-taking among an understudied but critical age group.

A Brief Overview of U.S. Public Policy on OER

Link

http://publius.cc/brief_overview_us_public_policy_oer_californias _community_colleges_obama_ad

Excerpt

“Criticism of Gov. Schwarzenegger’s initiative often takes issue with his money saving logic for deficit-laden California. Arguably, digital materials require a personal computer available to every student, an e-Book reader like Amazon’s Kindle, or mass printing of each reading assignment by the schools themselves. In a recent NY Times article, Tim Ward, an assistant superintendent in California, says his school district cannot afford any of those options.

“Additionally, what Schwarzenegger seems to not have captured is that OER is a reaction to the move of proprietary, analog educational materials management onto the network. OER encourages and enables the open production, sharing of, and access to educational content and resources. This alone is a valuable societal good, increasing the value of investments made in education. But OER creates the opportunity for a more fundamental and transformative change: the move from passive consumption of educational resources to the formal engagement of educators and learners in the creative process of education content development itself. Thus, the core benefits of OER should probably not be conflated with cutting the costs of materials.”

BetterGrads

Co-founded a nonprofit online mentoring organization for college-bound high school students with Kevin Adler in May 2009.

Website

bettergrads.org

Details of Work

  • Co-authored the mission, vision, and values statement of the organzation
  • Co-authored the by-laws and business plan
  • Co-wrote applications to numerous funders and startup competitions, and even edited a video emphasizing the geographic distance between my co-founder and me (see below)
  • Co-developed multiple surveys for prospective mentees and mentors, and deployed surveys online: first using hand-coded html, second using Google Forms
  • Developed and manage BetterGrads.org website (WordPress), re-designed twice with modifications to html, css, and javascript in base templates
  • Authored most static content on the website and several blog entries, and edited all imagery
  • Developed social media strategy and oversaw BetterGrads’ social media team, curating 200+ blog posts including special series
  • Recruited mentors from across the country for our pilot program
  • Moderated dozens of national conference calls with mentors, mentees, and social media team members
  • Co-developed mentoring program curriculum to prepare high school students for the college experienceOngoing
  • Co-directing the nonprofit, which is based in the San Francisco Bay Area where my co-founder lives, while living in Boston
  • Personally mentoring a high school senior at Granada High School in Livermore, CA
  • Advising for-profit spin-off Alumn.us founded by my co-founder

Industrial Cooperation Project

Research Assistant on the Ford Foundation-funded Cooperation Project at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard studying the educational materials industry, March 2009 – December 2009.

Website

Industrial Case Studies at cyber.law.harvard.edu

Details of Work

  • Performed market research on the textbook industry using business databases and market reports
  • Conducted phone interviews with industry experts in open educational resources (OER)
  • Mapped educational materials industry according to positions on copyright and business practices
  • Co-authored an essay on US public policy regarding OER, and contributed a research summary to the Cooperation Project’s annual report to the Ford Foundation
  • Documented all research on a public wiki

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